Raymond Ho



Raymond is currently a third year student at UC Berkeley. He is majoring in Molecular and Cell Biology and is interested in the therapeutic applications of basic science.

Raymond has written 49 post(s)

The ongoing fight against cancer has featured the usage of various therapies in an effort to discover ones that may eventually lead to cures. The most notable treatments include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery; however, other less known treatment options have been shown to be effective in targeting cancer cells. Unfortunately, many of these remain … Read More

We’re all familiar with stress and the potential effects it may have on our minds and bodies. Stress can be caused by numerous factors including fatigue, depression, and fear. The effects vary in levels of intensity but often involve unusual weight changes, headaches, and irritability. Many stress-reducing techniques, such as exercise, meditation, and yoga are available to … Read More

The ability of stem cells to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types makes them useful tools in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapy refers to the usage of stem cells in order to treat disease. One such therapy, known as bone marrow transplant, involves replacing unhealthy bone marrow with healthy bone marrow, consisting of stem cells that are capable … Read More

The discovery of antibiotics has been revolutionary in terms of our ability to treat bacterial infections; however, not long after the initial discovery of antibiotics, some flaws became apparent. After a while, antibiotics were no longer working against infections that they were once successful in dealing with, a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance. This can be explained, … Read More

As one gets older, the advantages of youth become clearer. Aging can be associated with many disadvantages such as having less energy, limited flexibility, and impaired cognition, among various other health issues. Although scientists have uncovered specific mechanisms for certain issues, a lot more research can still be done to understand why the elderly are more … Read More

Sickle cell disease refers to an inherited disorder that lead to the formation of abnormal red blood cells. The term “sickle” is used to describe the semicircular shape of these irregular red blood cells. The disease results from a point mutation, a single nucleotide substitution in our DNA, leading to changes in hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein … Read More

Autism affects 1 in 68 children in the United States. The disorder severely limits communication and interaction, with symptoms varying from mild to extremely debilitating. Currently, autism is incurable, but efforts are constantly being made towards discovering a cure. The means of doing so can vary, but one important factor often lies in being able to understand the … Read More

You’ve likely heard of tuberculosis or have at least been tested for it at some point in your life. It is an airborne disease caused by a bacterial infection in the lungs, specifically by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is extensive knowledge on what the disease can do and how it is caused, but it has remained a prevalent cause … Read More

Kidneys are important organs that filter blood and produce urine as waste. Like all complex processes in life, the function of the kidney can easily be disrupted by seemingly minor changes. One such change is the increase in the concentration of calcium and oxalate in the urine, a precursor that can be associated with dehydration … Read More

“Watch what you eat.” How many times have you heard that before? It’s common knowledge that unhealthy eating habits can lead to health problems such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease. But is that it? Unfortunately, it appears that what we eat may also have an effect on our genes, or, more specifically, … Read More

Personalized medicine is becoming increasingly relevant as technology and general scientific knowledge advances. It refers most simply to healthcare geared towards the individual. The idea of designing medical decisions that specifically address the unique conditions of each individual is arguably the most optimal method for effectively treating patients. Unfortunately, such an approach has yet to … Read More

Chemotherapy resistance serves as one of the largest issues plaguing the effectiveness of cancer therapy. Once cancer cells become resistant to a certain chemotherapy drug, that drug will no longer work in treating the cancer, thereby limiting available treatment options and decreasing the likelihood of survival. This is particularly concerning since the number of drugs … Read More

Do you have a habit of eating sweets? Or perhaps you have to complete a certain routine before being able to leave your house? These compulsions that essentially become automatic are known as habits. Habits can be good or bad, but one thing for certain is that once formed, they are hard to break. This is problematic … Read More

No one likes cancer, and it wouldn’t be that much of an exaggeration to say that people fear it. As a leading cause of death around the world that consistently ranks in the top three, cancer needs to be addressed, and a lot of research has been undertaken with the ultimate goal of curing it. Currently … Read More

You’re likely aware of the importance of sleep and how lack of sleep negatively affects your health. But do you know how to maximize the amount of sleep you get? Some simple tips include following a specific sleep schedule, limiting light exposure before sleep, and staying relaxed and stress-free. Such strategies may be effective most … Read More

Most people are able to feel pain and in most cases, they dislike it. There are currently both medical and non-medical ways by which one could relieve pain. However, the inability for one to feel pain is reserved for those with a rare genetic mutation called congenital insensitivity to pain; people with this condition are insensitive to pain, … Read More

When was the last time you lost a tooth? Disregarding accidents and injuries, it is likely that this happened frequently during your childhood. Baby teeth are replaced by permanent teeth by the age of 13 as the natural loss of teeth occurs only during this period of our lives. So what happens when you lose a permanent tooth … Read More

About a third of the adults and children in the United States are overweight or obese. Both of these conditions can cause serious health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and increased blood pressure. Obesity refers to the condition by which an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. Fortunately, there are many ways to treat this … Read More

You probably don’t own a 3D printer considering that a decent one costs well over a thousand dollars, but you’ve likely heard about the amazing things it can do. The excitement about the possibilities of 3D printing has been increasing in recent years as a result of the change from printing out just toys and furniture … Read More

How much music do you listen to? The average American listens to about four hours of audio a day, with more than half of that music originating from a radio. Music plays an important role in all of our lives; some even claim that music is necessary for survival. Music serves many diverse purposes, ranging … Read More

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