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Section 3008 of the Affordable Care Act went into effect October 1, 2014, penalizing the top quarter of inpatient hospitals based on rates of hospital-acquired conditions by reducing its Medicare payments by 1%. In other words, 25% of the hospitals in the US with the highest rates of hospital-acquired conditions will only receive 99% of their … Read More

The paranasal sinuses are a series of hollow chambers that surround the nasal chamber. The sinuses and the nose share a similar lining called the mucosa. This mucosa covers the entire system and consists of structural cells, mucus-producing cells, and hair cells called cilia. The cilia beat back and forth to move the mucus from the … Read More

One might not think human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and computer viruses have much in common, but researchers at the University College London have recently discovered a striking similarity between the two. The study showed that the two types of viruses have a similar way of spreading throughout their domains with HIV infecting the cells and computer viruses affecting … Read More

Castanea sativa, or Sweet Chestnut, originated in Western Asia, North Africa and Southern Europe. In these regions, the nut part of the plant is often cooked as a staple food source. In many cultures, however, these plants are also used for medicinal purposes, such as for the treatment of respiratory illnesses, digestive problems, and circulation issues. The leaves of the … Read More

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with the degeneration of nerves in multiple areas of the brain that affect vital functions such as movement, balance, and involuntary functions, such as bladder control, heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure regulation. This disease shares many similarities with Parkinson’s Disease. It develops later in adulthood, … Read More

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is an antibiotic-resistant form of bacteria that can cause life-threatening skin or bloodstream infections and pneumonia. It commonly causes painful skin boils and is easily transmitted through skin-to-skin contact of cuts and scrapes. MRSA evolved from the Staphyloccoccus aureus bacterium, commonly referred to as “staph”, after antibiotics were misused or overused to treat … Read More

A recent discovery by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine suggests that skin adipocytes, or fat cells directly beneath the skin, play a role in defending the body from infection. Adipocytes release an antimicrobial substance called cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), an important molecule in the immune system that directly kills pathogens like bacteria and viruses. Researchers … Read More

Fall will soon be upon us, and with it comes signature autumnal fashion. Boots! Scarves! Chunky sweaters! Surgical masks! Wait, what? With flu season just around the corner, don’t be surprised to see your fellow humans bust out surgical masks as their newest style statement. But how much of an impact do surgical masks actually … Read More

The featured image above shows a CT scan of the brain of a patient with hydrocephalus (left) versus that of a normal brain (right). Hydrocephalus is a condition associated with a buildup of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain, causing an increase in pressure on the brain tissue. Normally, the cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the brain and spinal … Read More

Antibiotics occupy our vernacular in modern medicine. That being said, they are by no means the cure-all that they are often advertised to be. In fact, while they can be extremely effective in certain cases, there is growing evidence of very negative effects when they are used inappropriately. Understanding and knowing when to use antibiotics is useful … Read More

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